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Vol. 13, No. 4, December 1975 - "Focus on Pennsylvania: The Bicentennial State"

(pp. 3 - 18)

Lee C. Hopple
Bloomsburg State College

Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania


Since their arrival on American shores more than two centuries ago, the Schwenkfelders1 have resided in southeastern Pennsylvania. Their population has not increased substantially through the centuries, nor have they migrated from their original American homeland of southeastern Pennsylvania. Therefore, except for the student of the Pennsylvania Dutch, few Americans are familiar with the Schwenkfelders. Indeed, many of their Pennsylvania Dutch2 cousins have never heard of them; thus, before presenting the spatial history of the Schwenkfelder movement, certain background information is presented for those who are unfamiliar with the Pennsylvania Dutch sects.

(pp. 19 - 26)

George T. Wiley
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Indiana, Pennsylvania


In the early afternoon of July 9, 1755, General Edward Braddock, commanding a force of 2,000 British regulars and Virginia militiamen, had advanced to within eight miles of Fort Duquesne when his column was suddenly ambushed by a body of French and Indians. The result was an inglorious defeat and the death of Braddock, "one of the things one always remembers."1 Another thing always remembered about the disaster is the skill and personal bravery of George Washington, an aide-de-camp to the British general, whose escape from death on that day became legendary.2 For those who examine the Braddock expedition in greater detail there is always the return to one nagging question: Was Braddock so wedded to the military tactics of the Old World that he sacrificed his command rather than fight from behind trees and under cover of thickets? A companion question to intrigue both the geographer and the historian is with what plan and success of execution did Braddock hew a road from Fort Cumberland across the mountains into the Ohio country?

The Pennsylvania Geographical Society exists to promote effective geographic teaching, research, and literacy.

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