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  • December 1970


Vol. 8, No. 4, December 1970 - "Production"


(pp. 1 - 12)


Andrew R. Thompson

West Chester State College

West Chester, Pennsylvania



Time provides a meaningful context within which spatial relationships can be viewed. 1 This approach is applicable to many facets of human geography, especially those involving relatively rapid locational change processes. Grist milling presents a particularly ideal subject for such inquiry since it provides not only a relatively rapid change in mill location, but other analytical advantages as well. Among these additional advantages is the fact that milling represents a very early and fundamental industry to our nation's economic development, and it therefore provides the longevity desirable for a time-sequence analysis. During this long period of operation grist milling underwent drastic technical, economic and cultural change which had a profound effect upon its development as well as its locational patterns. 2 Grist milling offers yet another possible advantage in that it provides a rather accurate means of identifying the process of agrarian-industrial integration. It has been noted that this integration represents an extremely critical stage in the economic growth and development of any region. 3 It is likely that through analysis of past integrative processes an improved understanding of current integrative efforts can be achieved. Certainly it is evident that in late Eighteenth and early Nineteenth Century America the gradual transition from custom-to merchant-milling marked a significant initial advance in the division of labor as well as per capita productivity two prime features of agrarian-industrial integration. This is not to infer that grist milling alone signaled such changes. Early fulling mills, saw mills, tanneries, and many other primary stage industries provided a stimulus for comparable transition.4 During the Colonial era, however, British restrictions on manufacturers repressed virtually all industrial activity with the exception of grist milling. Thus, it was frequently grist milling that marked agrarian-industrial integration in Colonial America.





(pp. 13 - 18)


Dr. E. Frank Koller

Fresno State College

Fresno, California



Nowhere in Medieval Europe north of the Alps was there greater development of commerce and industry than in Flanders and vicinity? Throughout much of the Middle Ages, Flanders ranked as the pre-eminent industrial region of northern Europe, and its intermediate location between England and central Europe, the Baltic-North Sea countries and the Mediterranean Sea figures prominently in establishing it as a principal crossroad of Medieval European trade (Fig. 1) . The town of Bruges, favorably, situated on the Zwin Estuary with excellent access to the North Sea, emerged as the maritime gateway to Flanders and, in the interval from the late thirteenth to the mid-fifteenth century, as the leading port,2 commercial depot,3 and financial center4 of northern Europe. During that period of history, trade routes focused on Flanders, and in particular, Bruges, from every direction of the compass. Some of the more noteworthy routes were those linking Bruges with. Italy.





(pp. 19 - 21)


John D. Coffman

Department of Geography

Edinboro State College

Edinboro, Pennsylvania



For centuries the green turtle (Chelonia niydas) has been an important source of protein to inhabitants of the Caribbean area. Because of the reluctance of many Indian groups, such as the Caribs of the Lesser Antilles, to eat turtle meat because of religious and superstitious beliefs, egg usage was more widespread than meat consumption prior to European contact.


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